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Discuss three significant changes in race relations (i.e., laws, amendments, labor arrangements, working conditions, migration patterns, and socioeconomic changes) that resulted from the reconstruction.

During the age of American Imperialism in America, reconstruction led to various changes in race relations regarding amendments, working conditions, migration patterns, laws, labor arrangements, and socioeconomic differences. For instance, historical researchers indicate that one of the significant changes that reconstruction brought to America was the thirteen amendments, which advocated for the abolition of slavery, especially for African Americans (Bouzitoune et al., 2020).

The Fourteenth Amendment advocated for equal citizenship rights and protection law. Finally, the fifteen Amendment for democracy for all people abolished racial discrimination in voting rights based on race and color. Enslaved people that Blacks, both men, and women, were now entitled a right to exercise their democratic right to vote (Nelson, 2009).

Through these amendments, African Americans, both men and women could experience freedom from their slaveholders. And as a result, the Freedom of Bureau was formed that was aimed at helping freedom enslaved people to settle peacefully in society, and they could seek jobs in various parts and work in good working conditions. Research indicates that some formerly enslaved people quickly moved to the neighborhood, while others remained to be wage laborers for their slaveholders. This is because African Americans could make their own decisions based on where they labored (Bouzitoune et al., 2020).

Describe two consequences of industrialization on American politics and society.

Industrialization in America had a significant impact on American politics and society at large. This is because industrialization led to the movement of people from their families to urban centers in search of jobs. Through massive migration of people to urban centers, there was available and cheap labor to work in various industries at a lower price. That movement changed American society since it led to the rapid growth of American cities (Stearns, 2020).

Research done by various historical researchers indicates that the availability of cheaper labor in urban centers where industries were situated contributed to lowering the high cost of living. And as a result, it led to a price reduction of primary or essential products such as clothing, and household goods, among other products.

Moreover, industrialization in America had significant changes in American politics. This is because it led to emerging of the United States as the global economic power, the passage of labor-associated legislation, and a clash between the traditional culture and new modern progress (Stearns, 2020).

Explain the rise of the progressive movement by describing the role of religion and social morality in promoting progressive reforms.

Historical research indicates that the Progressive movement in America was a political movement around the beginning of the 20th century that specifically was concerned with the advancement of social and political change or revolution, reducing or curbing political corruption that was facilitated by the political machine and restricting political impact or sway of big businesses. The progressive movement was started by protestant leaders and Christian progressives named social gospel in 1970. Social gospel promoted progressive reforms based on the principle that all church leaders should be involved or participate in social reforms. When this initiative began, many church clergy members became politically active and ultimately assisted in passing legislation promoting labor rights and other social reforms. It was thought that battling social injustice would usher in a kind of Heaven on Earth and bring about personal redemption (Mattson, 2010).

During this period, it was mainly defined by significant reforms. For instance, the Anti-prostitution campaign progressive led to the Mann Act, which prohibited women from trafficking for immoral reasons or intentions. Another reform that could define the progressive era was women's suffrage, which gave women the right to vote as law and participate in national or local elections (Connelly, 2018).

Moreover, the progressive movement significantly impacted American politics because it led to social liberalism. This is because, through progressive movements, various amendments and legislation led to the representation of the ordinary people's interests that led to political change and support of government actions (Haveman et al., 2007). And as a result, it contributed to establishing a more transparent and accountable government primarily concerned with American society.

Explain the role of American imperialism in leading the United States into World War 1 and

American imperialism led the United States into World War 1 through the expansion of European nations as empires, which led to increased tensions among the European countries (Ninkovich, 2001). For instance, Britain and French increased pressure through the expansion of their empires. Research indicates that tensions increased since many colonies were acquired through coercion, and some nations never wanted to lose their territories. And as a result of British and French expansionism, they inserted tension into opposing empires, leading to World War 1 (Ninkovich, 2001).

Research indicates that American imperialism contributed to the Spanish-American war in 1898 (Řepová, 2021). This was facilitated by Cuba's struggle for independence from (their colonizers) Spain. The sensationalist American journalism of the Cuban conflict and the mysterious decline of the American Navy battleship enabled the Spanish-American war. This was because the United States was actively involved in helping other countries gain independence and defend its democratic ideals. When Spain noticed losing its colony, it began fighting the United States, which resulted in the Spanish-American war (Řepová, 2021).


Bouzitoune, K., Nezzar, K., & Filali, B. (2020). The Anguish of the 19th century race relations African Americans post-reconstruction.

Connelly, M. T. (2018). The response to prostitution in the progressive era. UNC Press Books.

Haveman, H. A., Rao, H., & Paruchuri, S. (2007). The winds of change: The progressive movement and the bureaucratization of thrift. American sociological review, 72(1), 117-142.

Mattson, K. (2010). Creating a democratic public: The struggle for urban participatory democracy during the progressive era. Penn State Press.

Nelson, W. E. (2009). The Fourteenth Amendment: from political principle to Judicial doctrine. Harvard University Press.

Ninkovich, F. (2001). The United States and Imperialism. A Companion to American Foreign Relations, 79.

Řepová, V. (2021). The Spanish-American War of 1898.

Stearns, P. N. (2020). The industrial revolution in world history. Routledge.

Describe two consequences of industrialization on American politics and/or

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